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Sea Routes

Similarly to roads on land, sea routes are used by vessels on oceans and lakes for commercial shipping.

For Your understanding here is the Shipping route of a shipping line CMA CGM


Major Sea Routes:

The North Atlantic Routes.

The Cape Route.

The South Atlantic Route.

The Panama Route.

The North Pacific Route.

The Mediterranean-Red Sea Route.


The North Atlantic Routes:

This route is extended from Western Europe in the east to eastern parts of North America in the West. This the busiest ocean trade routes of the world. It connects the world’s two major manufacturing regions, having the highest level of industrial and commercial developments and the highest standard of living. The cargo from North America to Western Europe include wheat, maize, cotton, steel, engineering goods, electronics, textiles and others. The shipment from Western Europe to North America includes iron ore (mainly from Sweden), steel, fruits, wine, chemicals, machinery and others.

Major Ports.

West Europe Liverpool, London, Rotterdam, Hamburg, Oslo, Stockholm and Antwerp

North America New York, Boston, Baltimore, Montreal and Quebec.

The Cape Route:

Cape route is extended along west Africa via Cape Town of south Africa (Cape of Good Hope) and then eastward to Australia and New Zealand and north-eastward to south Asia and northward through east Africa to west Asia.

It was once an alternative route to the Suez Canal route and between 1967 to 1975 this route was very significant due to the closure of Suez Canal.

At present this route mainly serves the countries of east and west Africa.

South Africa is very much dependent on this route.

Major Ports.

London in Europe, Cape town in South-Western part of Africa, Durban in South-Eastern part of Africa, Aden in West Asia, Mumbai in India, Perth and Sydney in Australia, Wellington in New Zealand.

The South Atlantic Route:

This route connects Brazil, Argentina and Uruguay with South Africa.

This route is more significant for coastal trade amongst the South American countries.

Major imports of South America are coal, machinery and other manufactured goods.

Major exports are meat, coffee, food-grains and iron ore.

Major Ports.

Rio-de-Janeiro in Brazil, Buenos Aires in Argentina, Montevideo in Uruguay, Durban in South Africa.

The Panama Route:

This route came into existence with the completion of Panama Canal, connecting Atlantic ocean with Pacific ocean.

From Atlantic side the route leads to the Panama Canal. Once clear of the canal the route splits into several branches leading to western coast of U.S.A., western coast of south America, Australia, Japan and to several Pacific islands.

Minerals, fertilizers and manufactured goods are the major trading items.

Major Ports.

New York, San Francisco, Vancouver, Wellington, Sydney.

The North Pacific Route:

This route lies between the western coast of North America and the Far East.

Trade between the western part of U.S.A. on one side and eastern and south-eastern Asia on the other side, is carried out along this trade route.

Major items of trade are wheat, timber, pulp and paper, dairy products and manufactured goods.

Major Ports.

New York, San Francisco, Vancouver, Wellington, Sydney.



The Mediterranean-Red Sea Route:

This route extends from the west European side of the Atlantic ocean through the Strait of Gibraltar, the Mediterranean Sea, the Suez Canal, and the Red Sea into the Indian ocean.

Crude & Petroleum is the most important commodity along this trade route which is transported from west Asia/Gulf to western Europe.

The cargo in this route includes steel, machinery, chemicals, textiles and foodstuffs.

Major Ports.

Lisbon in Portugal, Marseille in France, Port Said in Egypt, Aden in Yemen Gulf

(Saudi Arabia, Iraq, Oman, Kuwait, UAE , Iran and Aqaba)

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